Veneration of the Virgin Mary, Part 7

This is Part 7 of a seven (7) part series on The Veneration of the Virgin Mary, also called the Mother of God, or Theotokos (Greek for God Bearer) in the Orthodox Christian Church.

Part 1     Part 2   Part 3    Part 4    Part 5    Part 6    Part 7

Related blog posts on Jesus Christ’s Geneology:  Women in Jesus’ Geneology  also, Old Testament Priesthood as compared to New Testament Priesthood.

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PART 7

The Virgin Mary is venerated in the Orthodox Church not because she is the greatest exception, but because she is the greatest example. (Unknown)

The Orthodox Faith venerates the Mother of God utilizing Old Testament prefiguring images of her in the hymnody of the Church to teach the faithful about God’s Divine Plan for the Redemption of His People through her.   She is worthy of veneration because she is the beauty and excellency of all of the generations of Israel who in the fullness of time prepared herself so she could receive her own Salvation while accepting to bring salvation of all mankind into the world through the Incarnation of God, “Behold, the maidservant of the Lord!  Let it be to me according to your word” at the Annunciation of God coming to Earth to save His people which prefigure the words of Rev. 22:20 of the Church awaiting the Second Coming of the Savior: “Amen ….. Come Lord Jesus”

Throughout these classes, we spoke of how the Virgin Mary is the perfect example of a person traveling the road to Theosis, union with God, and we also pointed out that this will only be fully realized at the Second Coming of the Lord.  We learned that the essence of what we were created to be, our humanity, will not change at the Second Coming.  It instead will still be entirely human…but in a new and glorious form.  It will be the form in which God originally created man in the beginning.  With regard to Theosis, St Anastasios says “….That which is of God is that which has been lifted up to a greater glory without its own nature being changed.”[1]

In an Orthodox wedding service there are two parts, the first part is the Betrothal.  In Old Testament Israel, the Betrothal was a legal and binding promise and the “couple” was considered married even though the consummation of the marriage (the Crowning) had not come to fruition.  The Church of the present age is the betrothed of God awaiting the consummation of the marriage with Her Bridegroom (the crowning) in her life to come.

It is my hope that these lessons have been of some benefit in understanding how the Orthodox Tradition of the veneration of the Mother of God is a natural fulfillment of the Old Testament narratives as heard in the Liturgical tradition of the Orthodox faith.

The Theotokos is the Bride of God, the Mother of God, the New Jerusalem, the Church, the Mother of all Christians, the Protection of Christians, and the Mediatress of Christians before the throne of Her Son.  She is worthy of veneration by the members of the Body of Her Son (the Church) because through her perfect obedience to the will of God, she freely cooperated with divine grace in order to be able to travel the road of union with God.  Because of her perfect obedience to the will of God, our humanity was joined with God’s Divinity through the incarnation of His Son, Jesus Christ, and raised to the heights of God.  Because of the Theotokos’ perfect obedience to God, we too may have the opportunity to freely cooperate with Divine Grace for the salvation of our souls.

Scriptural Passages and Hymnody for this part
New Testament Old Testament Hymnody
John 3:23-3:35

Rev.19:7

Rev. 21:2

Rev. 21:9

Rev. 22:17

Romans 7:1-6

Mt 22:1-14

2Cor 11:2

Eph 5:22-32

1 Cor 5:7

Mt 22:2

Mt. 25:1-13

Mt 5:12

1 Pet  4:13

Rev. 19:9

Rev. 3:4,

Rev. 3:5;

Rev. 7:14

Rev. 19:8

Rev. 19:9

Mt 26:29

Lk 13:29

Lk 22:30

Mt 5:18

Mk 13:31

1 Co 7:31

2 Pet 3:10-13

1 Jn 2:17

Rev. 5:9

Rev. 21:5

Rom 8:19-22

2 Cor 5:17

2 Pt 3:13

Heb 11:10

2 Cor 6:16

Rev. 22:20

Rev. 22:17

Is 54:1-8

Ezk 16:7-14

Hos 2:1-23

Hos 2:19

Is 65:17-25

Is 2:1-4

Jer 38:33

 

Ninth Ode from Pascha

 

Excerpts from the Divine Liturgy, Matins and Vespers.

 

 

End.

Glory to God for all things +

Bibliography

Abydos, Bishop Gerasimos of. At the End of Time: the Eschatological Expectations of the Church. Brookline, Mass.: Holy Cross Orthodox Press, 2004.

Dalmais, Irénée Henri, Pierre Jounel, and Aimé Georges Martimort. The Liturgy and Time. New  Edited by A. G. Martimort, I. H. Dalmais and P. Jounel. Collegeville, Minn.: The Liturgical Press, 1986

Edersheim, Alfred. The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah. Nabu Press, 2011

Hapgood, Isabel Florence, ed. Service Book Of The Holy Orthodox-Catholic Apostolic Church. 5th ed. Englewood, NJ: Antiochian Orthodox Christian Arch., 1996

Kangelaris, Demetri, and Nicholas Kasemeotes, trans. The Service of the Small Paraklesis to the Most Holy Theotokos. Brookline, MA.: Holy Cross Orthodox Press, 1997

Elowsky, Joel C., and Thomas C. Oden, eds. Ancient Christian Commentary On Scripture: New Testament Iva John 1-10. Downers Grove, IL.: InterVarsity Press, 2006.

Fiorenza, Elisabeth Schussler. The Book of Revelation, Justice and Judgment. Philadelphia: Fortress Pr, 1985.

Hainsworth, Fr. John. “The Ever Virginity of the Mother of God.” Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America. http://www.goarch.org/ourfaith/ourfaith9174 (accessed November 1, 2011

Harakas, Stanley Samuel. The Orthodox Church: 455 Questions and Answers. Minneapolis, Minn.: Light & Life Pub Co, 1988

Harrington, Wilfrid J. Revelation (Sacra Pagina Series – Paperback). Collegeville: Liturgical Press, 2008

Hastings’ Dictionary of the Bible. Translated by James Hastings.  Hendrickson Publishers, 2005.

Hapgood, Isabel Florence, Service Book of the Holy Orthodox-Catholic Apostolic Church. Englewood, New Jersey: Antiochian Orthodo Christian Archdiocese of North America, 1996

Josephus, Flavius. The Wars of the Jews or History of the Destruction of Jerusalem. Teddington, Middlesex TW118HH, Echo Library, 2009.

Kronstadt, St. John. My Life in Christ, or Moments of Spiritual Serenity and Contemplation, of Reverent Feeling, of Earnest Self-Amendment, and of Peace in God. Kindle Edition, 2011. http://www.amazon.com/Spiritual-Serenity-Contemplation-Reverent-Self-Amendment/dp/0884650189 (accessed November 15, 2011)

Leondis, Rev. Alexander G., Rev. Socrates C. Tsamutalis, and Rev. James C. Moulketis, trans. The Divine Liturgy of Saint John Chrysostom and Hymnal. Midland Park, NJ.: NIKA Publishing, 1989.

Lossky, Vladimir. In the Image and Likeness of God. Edited by John H. Erickson. Crestwood, N.Y.: St Vladimir’s Seminary Press, 2001

Mary, Mother, and Archimandrite Kallistos Ware, trans. The Festal Menaion. South Canaan, Pennsylvania: St Tikhons Seminary Pr, 1998

Maximos of Pittsburgh, His Eminence Metropolitan. “The Dogmatic Tradition of the Orthodox Church.” Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America. http://www.goarch.org/ourfaith/ourfaith8038 (accessed November 13, 2011

Maximovitch, St. John, and John Maximovitch. The Orthodox Veneration of Mary the Birthgiver of God. 4 Revised ed. Platina, CA: Saint Herman Pr, 1997

Meyendorff, John. Marriage: an Orthodox Perspective. 2d expanded ed. Crestwood, NY: St Vladimirs Seminary Press, 2000

Monastery, Holy Transfiguration, trans. The Great Horologion: Book of Hours. Brookline, MA.: Holy Transfiguration Monastery, 1997.

Packer, A.M., D.Phil., James I., Merrill C. Tenney, A.M., Ph.D., and William White, Jr., Th.M., Ph.D., eds. The Bible Almanac. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1980.

Patriarch of Alexandria, St. Cyril. Commentary On the Gospel of Saint Luke. Translated by R. Payne Smith. Studion Publishers, Inc., 1983

Roberts, Rev. Alexander, and James Donaldson, eds. Apocryphal Gospels, Acts and Revelations. Translated by Alexander Walker, Esq. Vol. 16 of Ante-Nicene Christian Library: Translations of the Writings of the Fathers Down to Ad 325. Whitefish, MT: Kessinger Publishing LLC, 2004.

Schaff, D.D., LL.D., Philip, and Henry Wace, D.D., eds. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers: The Seven Ecumenical Councils. Vol. 14. Peabody, MA.: Hendrickson Publishers, 1994.

Schmemann, Alexander. For the Life of the World: Sacraments and Orthodoxy. Crestwood, N.Y.: St. Vladimir’s Seminary Press, 2004.

Schmemann, Alexander. Of Water: A Liturgical Study of Baptism. Crestwood, NY: St.Vladimir Seminary Press, 2000

Schmemann, Alexander. The Historical Road of Eastern Orthodoxy. Crestwood, N.Y.: St Vladimirs Seminary Pr, 1997

St. John the Baptist, Essex, UK, The Stavropegic Monastery. Mary the Mother of God: Sermons by Saint Gregory Palamas. Edited by Christopher Veniamin. South Canaan, PA.: Mount Thabor Publishing, 2005.

Stavropoulos, Archimandrite Christoforos. Partakers of Divine Nature. Translated by Rev. Dr. Stanley Harakas. Minneapolis, MN.: Light and Life Publishing Company, 1976

Tarazi, Paul Nadim. Historical Traditions. Vol. 1 of The Old Testament: An Introduction. Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir’s Seminary Press, 1991.

Tarazi, Paul Nadim. The New Testament: an Introduction, Johannine Writings, Crestwood, N.Y.: St Vladimir’s Seminary Pr, 2004.

Tarazi, Paul Nadim. The Old Testament, Introduction: Prophetic Traditions. Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir’s Seminary Press, 1994.

Tenney, Merrill C., Steven Barabas, and Peter deVisser, eds. Pictorial Bible Dictionary. Nashville, Tennessee: The Southwestern Company, 1975.

The Festal Menaion. South Canaan, Pennsylvania: St Tikhons Seminary Pr, 1990

Vaporis, translated by N. Michael. The Service of the Sunday Orthros. Brookline, Mass.: Holy Cross Orthodox Press, 1991

Vaporis, N. Michael, and Evie Zachariades-Holmberg. “The Akathist Hymn and Small Compline.” Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America. http://www.goarch.org/chapel/liturgical_texts/vaporis_akathist (accessed September 14, 2011)

Weinrich, William C., and Thomas C. Oden, eds. Ancient Christian Commentary On Scripture New Testament XII Revelation. Downers Grove, IL.: Inter-varsity Press, 2005.

Wilcock, Michael. The Message of Revelation: I Saw Heaven Opened. Leicester, England.: IVP Academic, 1984

Wilson, Mark. Charts On the Book of Revelation: Literary, Historical, and Theological

Perspectives (Kregel Charts of the Bible and Theology). Grand Rapids, MI.:  Kregel Academic & Professional, 2007

Archimandrite Christoforos Stavropoulos, Partakers of Divine Nature, trans. Rev. Dr. Stanley Harakas (Minneapolis, MN.: Light and Life Publishing Company, 1976),17-19
END.

GLORY TO GOD FOR ALL THINGS.

 

Veneration of the Virgin Mary Part 5

This is Part 5 of a seven (7) part series on The Veneration of the Virgin Mary, also called the Mother of God, or Theotokos (Greek for God Bearer) in the Orthodox Christian Church.

Part 1     Part 2   Part 3    Part 4    Part 5    Part 6    Part 7

Related blog posts on Jesus Christ’s Geneology: Women in Jesus’ Geneology also, Old Testament Priesthood as compared to New Testament Priesthood.

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God’s Divine plan for man’s salvation culminated in the birth of the Virgin Mary who was the beauty and excellency of all of the generations of Israel.  From the time of the Virgin Mary’s birth she was identified with the Community of Israel, both the community of the Old Covenant and the community of the New Covenant; and she is venerated in the Church’s hymnody as the Temple and Ark of God, the Mother of God, the New Jerusalem, and the Mother of the Church.

The Virgin Mary is one flesh with her Divine Son, Jesus Christ.  Since the Virgin Mary is the Lord’s Mother, the Lord took his humanity, body and blood, from her.  The Virgin Mary is a reflection of the divine image which God had given mankind in the beginning of creation.   She is one flesh with her Divine Son.  The Church teaches that the Orthodox Christian becomes a child of the Lord by adoption and puts on the new nature of Jesus Christ through the Sacrament of Baptism.  In Gal 3:26 – 4:7, St. Paul directly relates the Sacrament of Baptism as the path to becoming one with Christ Jesus.   When a person is baptized, they put on Christ and are baptized into His Body, the Church.  In other words, through baptism, the faithful enter the Church and become sanctified members of the mystical body of Christ, one flesh with the Lord.   When a person is baptized, the major Hymn that is sung at Baptism is “Osi is Christon…”  “All who have been baptized into Christ have put on Christ.”  This hymn comes from the New Testament St. Paul’s Epistle to the Galatians 3:27.   Many Orthodox biblical scholars think the hymn of, “Osi is Christon…” was already being sung at the early Christian baptisms during the procession of the newly regenerated into the assembly.  This hymn continues to be sung at every Orthodox baptismal service to this day[1].

After the Sacrament of Baptism, the Christian begins and long a difficult journey to salvation.  The baptized Christian must struggle with his free will so that in true cooperation with God, he will be able to reach the condition of unity with God.  This condition of untiy with God is called, Theosis, which is the process of choosing that all of the Christian’s opinions, thoughts, words actions, their whole life, is turned in God’s direction.

Since Mary Theotokos is one flesh with her divine Son, she is therefore, necessarily the Mother of those baptized into His body, the Church.   The Holy Eucharist is a concrete realization of the unity of human nature with Christ, and concurrently, of unity with all the members of the Church.  When the Christian partakes of Holy Communion, he/she mystically partakes of the Body and Blood of the Savior – we relive the miracle of His divine incarnation through Mary, Theotokos.   When the Lord clothed himself with humanity’s flesh and blood through the Virgin Mary, the Lord perfected humanity.  He made perfect the Old Covenant in the now New Covenant, by uniting humanity with his Divinity and transfiguring it into a new and glorious form.  When the faithful partake of the Lord in Holy Communion, they become by mystical Grace, part of His body and blood, and become united with the members of the church, the body of Christ, the New Jerusalem, and God becomes their Father and the Theotokos becomes their mother.  Eve, as the mother of the race of Adam, became subject to the devil, death and corruption.  However, the Virgin Mary, Theotokos, Eve’s anti-type, is the Mother of Christians who are freed from the destructive influences and powers of evil, having become partakers of the divine nature” (2 Pet. 1:4).

The Orthodox faith has taught for centuries that the Mother of God is our Mother too.   St. Gregory Palamas in his Homily 37 on the Dormition of the Mother of God, says, “the Mother of us all” for she “alone, placing herself between God and the whole human race….she stands on the borders of created and uncreated nature, being the first to realize in her own life the fact of human divinization, she represents the way and the prototype of the God-oriented man.”

God’s Divine plan for man’s salvation culminated in the birth of the Virgin Mary who was the beauty and excellency of all of the generations of Israel.  From the time of the Virgin Mary’s birth she was identified with the Community of Israel, both the community of the Old Covenant and the community of the New Covenant; and she is venerated in the Church’s hymnody as the Temple and Ark of God, the Mother of God, the New Jerusalem, and the Mother of the Church.

[1] Note:  “Osi is Christon…” is also chanted in the Church at the Feast days of Christmas, Epiphany, St. John the Baptist, The Saturday of Lazarus, Easter and Pentecost.

Related blog posts on Jesus Christ’s Geneology:  Women in Jesus’ Geneology  also, Old Testament Priesthood as compared to New Testament Priesthood.

 

Veneration of the Virgin Mary Part 3

This is Part 3 of a seven (7) part series on The Veneration of the Virgin Mary, also called the Mother of God, or Theotokos (Greek for God Bearer) in the Orthodox Christian Church.

Part 1     Part 2   Part 3    Part 4    Part 5    Part 6    Part 7

Related blog posts on Jesus Christ’s Geneology: Women in Jesus’ Geneology also, Old Testament Priesthood as compared to New Testament Priesthood.

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PART 3

  1. Overview

As we have seen in the previous parts of this series, in the New Testament, “Adam” comes to signify the “old man”, the fallen and sinful condition of all humanity.  Jesus Christ, in His person and work, is the beginning of the “new man”.  We are told in scripture, 2 Cor 5:17, “If any man be in Christ, he is a new creature”.  Seeing the first Adam as representative of our fallen condition, and the second Adam (Jesus Christ) as bringing about our new and redeemed human condition has led our Church to view Christ’s incarnation, teaching, crucifixion, and especially His resurrection as a restoration of “Adam” – that is the restoration of humanity.

We have also seen how the very first Christians – even back to the Grandparents of the Lord, Joachim and Anna and the High Priest Zacharias – used Old Testament imagery as applied to the Virgin Mary in recognition of how she is the fulfillment of the Old Testament prophesies and that this process of recalling Old Testament Scripture was used over and over again throughout the history of the church to the present day.

  1. Scriptural Old Testament imagery used in the hymnody of the Church in relation to the Mother of God.

The hymnody of the church uses a great deal of Temple and Ark of the Covenant imagery in relation to the Mother of God.  More so than any other object, the Ark is used to typify the Theotokos.   St. Gregory Palamas in his homily on the Nativity of the Mother of God writes,

“Today a new world and a mysterious paradise have been revealed, in which and from which a New Adam came into being, re-making the Old Adam and renewing the universe…..today the living Tabernacle of God…the inspired human Ark of the true Bread of Life sent down from heaven for us….But, who is the new world, the mysterious paradise, the inspired Tabernacle and Ark of God, ….?  It is the Maiden who before and after childbearing is eternally virgin…”[1] \

Saint Cosmas takes up the theme of comparing the Virgin Mary to liturgical vessels and chants at the Dormition of the Mother of God, Matins Canticle Six, First Canon, ”Thy Son, O Virgin, has truly made thee dwell in the Holy of Holies as a bright candlestick, flaming with immaterial fire, as a golden censer burning with divine coal, as the vessel of manna, the rod of Aaron, and the tablet written by God, as a holy ark and table of the bread of life.”[2]

On the Feast of the Entrance of the Virgin into the Temple, one of the lessons read during Vespers for this feast of the Mother of God is 1 Kings 8:1-11.  This passage describes the dedication of Solomon’s temple (c.960BC).  This designated reading at this feast day to the Mother of God aligns the dedication of Solomon’s temple in the old covenant of the Lord with his people to the dedication of the new temple in the new covenant of the Lord with his people which is given through the person of the Virgin Mary.

In the New Testament, the Ark is mentioned in the Letter to the Hebrews and the Book of Revelation. Hebrews 9:2-4 states that the Ark contained “the golden pot that had manna, and Aaron’s rod that budded, and the tablets of the covenant.” Revelation 11:19 says the prophet saw God’s temple in heaven opened, “and the ark of his covenant was seen within his temple.”

A number of Biblical commentators connect the verse of Revelation 11:19 with the Woman of the Apocalypse in Revelation 12:1, which immediately follows, and they state that the Virgin Mary is the “Ark of the New Covenant” in this passage.   Carrying the Savior of mankind within her, she herself became the Holy of Holies. This is the interpretation given by many Fathers of the Church in the fourth century.  At Vespers for the Entry of the Theotokos into the Temple it is chanted in church, “Into the holy placed the Holy of Holies is fittingly brought to dwell, as a sacrifice acceptable to God.[3] It is also heard in church at the same service, “..for Joachim brings within today in glory the Temple and Throne of the King of all, and he consecrates as an offering to God her whom the Lord has chosen to be his Mother.”[4]  Also, during this service we hear other correlations made equating the Virgin Mary with the Ark of the Covenant, the Holy Tabernacle, the Holy of Holies, the Bridal Chamber of God the Word, the golden vessel containing the true manna, the flesh in which Divinity resides.[5]

A little history about the Ark and the Temple of Solomon is worth recalling at this point.    The Ark is described in Ex. 25:10-22 as a box surmounted by two figures of cherubim as we discussed during our first week of class.  Provisions were made for gold-plated acacia wood staves permanently inserted and fixed through golden rings so that it could be carried.  The initial purpose of the chest was to hold the “testimony” to God’s salvation.  The ark was a throne for the invisible God Who was seated on the wings of the cherubim.  Within the chest were the two stone tablets of the “covenant of the Lord” (Ten Commandments – 1 Kings 8:21); a homer (which is about two quarts) of manna was contained in a golden pot (Ex. 16:33-34) as a memorial to God’s provision; and, the rod of Aaron which bloomed blossoms and produced almonds as “a testimony … against murmurings” to the exclusive priesthood of the sons of Aaron and the authority of Moses and Aaron. (Numbers 17:10).

The dwelling place of the God of Israel, was originally the portable shrine called the Ark of the Covenant, which was placed in the Tabernacle tent.  In the history of the Ark, it leads the Israelites through the desert.   After King David unified Israel, he brought the Ark to Jerusalem, the new capital, with the intent of building temple as a permanent place for the Ark.  In I Chronicles 21-22, David purchased a threshing-floor for the site of the Temple.  God told King David that because his reign was of blood,  he would not be permitted to build a temple in his lifetime.  The task of building therefore passed to David’s son and successor, Solomon.  1 Kings 6:1-38, 7, and 8 describe the construction and dedication of the Temple under King Solomon.

King Solomon requested the aid of King Hiram of Tyre to provide both the quality materials and skilled craftsmen. During the construction, a special inner room, named the Holy of Holies, was prepared to receive and house the Ark of the Covenant (1 Kings 6:19); and when the Temple was dedicated, the Ark described 1 Kings 8:9 only contained the Tablets of Stone.  Aaron’s rod that “budded” is no longer in the Ark and neither is the jar of manna (1 Kings 8:6-9).  The time frame is approximately the 10th century BC.  From that period of time, there is no mention of the Ark apart from the Prophet Jeremiah approximately around 627 BC, who prophesied of the persecutions and destruction of Jerusalem and the temple and the captivity of the Jews in Babylon.  Scripture tells us that Jeremiah prophesied:   “in those days, they shall no more say, “The Ark of the Covenant of the Holy One of Israel”:  It shall not come to mind; it shall not be named; neither shall it be visited…” (Jer. 3:16)

Around 587 BC, before the next destruction of the Temple, II Macc. 2:4-6 informs us that the Prophet Jeremiah was told by God to hide the Ark.  This scriptural passage says,  “being warned of God, commanded the Tabernacle and the Ark to go with him, as he went forth into the mountain where Moses climbed up…and he found a hollow cave, wherein he laid the tabernacle, and the Ark, and the altar of incense, and so stopped the door…..Some followed the prophet and tried to mark the way, but they could not find it”( II Macc. 2:4-6).   For centuries following, the location of the Ark of the Covenant, the Tabernacle and Holy Altar appears to have remained hidden in a cave on Mt. Horeb (Mt. Sinai).

Around 19 BC, Herod the Great renovated the Temple which had again been previously destroyed by the 70 years of Israelite captivity (Dan. 9:1-2), and the temple became known as Herod’s Temple.  The Works of Josephus, The Wars of the Jews,[6]further clarifies there was no Ark in Herod’s renovated temple.   According to tradition, this renovated temple, with no Ark of the Covenant, existed during the time the Virgin Mary would have gone to live in it when she was 3 years old.  St. John Maximovitch writes that the child Mary entered the newly-restored temple into which the glory of God had not descended as it had upon the Ark or upon the First Temple, the Temple of Solomon[7].  This statement seems to verify Josephus writing on the Wars of the Jews which state that the Ark of the Covenant was not in the new temple.  Sacred Tradition further indicates that the Virgin Mary lived in the Holy of Holies during her time in the temple.   The Holy Fathers of the Church have commented that fact that there was no Ark of the Old Testament in the Holy of Holies at this time did not matter, because the Old Covenant is replaced with the New Covenant with the Virgin Mary who at this point resides in the Temple until the Annunciation by the Archangel Gabriel that she had been chosen by God to bring salvation into the world and her betrothal to Joseph.  The Hymnody of the Orthodox Church verifies the Tradition of Mary being the “Living Ark” of God in the feast day of her presentation to the Temple on November 21.

  • Small Vespers, Nov. 21, “….into the Holy of Holies receive ye a Virgin, the spotless Tabernacle of God the Almighty”.[8]
  • Great Vespers, Nov. 21, “…Today let us, the faithful, dance for joy, singing to the Lord with psalms and hymns, venerating His hallowed Tabernacle, the living Ark, that contained the Word who cannot be contained…”[9]
  • Matins, Nov. 21, “…The Temple of God, the heavenly Tabernacle, accomplished her entry into the temple of the Law …..”[10]
  • Old Testament types of Mary.

Old Testament types of Mary which relate to the Lord dwelling in her womb include the Jar of manna (EX 16:33, 34); Aaron’s rod that budded (Nm 17:1-13); the tablet of the Law “written with the finger of God” (Ex 31:18 – The Fathers of the Church say the “finger of God” is the Holy Spirit).

Other Old testament phrases one hears in Orthodox church services related to the Virgin Mary are:

  • “The ladder reaching from earth to heaven (Gn 28:10-17)”, the Burning Bush and the Firey Throne in the Akathist Hymn and other hymns to the Mother of God. God spoke from the burning bush and lived within the Virgin, but His Divine immaterial fire (the light of God) did not consume either but instead cleansed and enlightened her soul.   The “burning” is the immaterial fire, the light of God, that cleanses and enlightens our souls.
  • A “sweet smelling fragrance” is another phrase that is used in relation to the Theotokos primarily heard in the Akathist Hymn and other hymns to the Mother of God. This refers to incense used in temple worship of God, and in the case of the Virgin Mary, it refers to her virginity and perfect obedience to the Will of God.
  • Dismissal Hymn of the Forefeast of the Entrance of the Virgin Mary: “By blossoming forth the only Ever-virgin as fruit, today holy Anna doth betroth us all unto joy, instead of our former grief; on this day she doth fulfill her vows to the Most High, leading her with joy into the Lord’s holy temple, who truly is the temple and pure Mother of God the Word.[11]
  • Kontakion of the Forefeast, “The whole world is filled today with joy and gladness on the Theotokos’s auspicious and resplendent feast, whereon with great voice it crieth out: The heavenly tabernacle is she in truth.[12]
  • There is also the imagery of the Gate with reference to the Theotokos. The Old Testament passage, Ezekiel 43:27-44.4, is the only Old Testament passage read at all four of the major feasts of the Theotokos. This reading tells about the East Gate of the heavenly temple remaining shut even as the Lord God of Israel, and He alone, goes in and out through it.  The Fathers of the Church see this as prophetic of the Lord entering Mary’s womb and being born nine months later with her virginity remaining intact – and, it is also prophetic of Palm Sunday when the Lord entered Jerusalem from the East from the Mount of Olives
  • In Ezekiel 44:2-3, Prophet Ezekiel says, “And the Lord said to me, This gate shall be shut, it shall not be opened, and no one shall pass through it; for the Lord God of Israel shall enter by it, and it shall be shut. For the Prince, He shall sit in it, to eat bread before the Lord; He shall go in by the way of the porch of the gate, and shall go forth by the way of the same.  At the church service for the Entrance of the Theotokos into the Temple we hear, “Today the house of God receives the Gate through which no one may pass; so it has brought an end to the worship commanded by the shadow of the law.”[13] In order to understand this phrase church, review Ezekiel 43:1-12.  Ezekiel was led out from the east gate, the glory of the Lord entered, and then the gate was shut.

In modern times, the East Gate is located on the east walls of the old city of Jerusalem, leading to the temple mount.    Some consider this to be the place of the Last Judgment because historically, judgments were rendered in the gates of the city as we learn from Gen.19:1, 23:10. Since scripture says that the Messiah was to come from the East (Matthew 24:27), some biblical scholars concluded that his judgment would be at the eastern gate. This is one reason for the many Muslim, Christian, and Jewish graves on the Eastern slopes of the Temple Mount, in the Kidron Valley, and on the Western slopes of the Mount of Olives.  Some Muslims place Allah’s final judgment at this location also. Jews are still waiting for the Messiah to arrive through the eastern gate  – and Christians have for centuries associated the East Gate with Palm Sunday (the Messiah’s arrival) and also with the Second Coming of the Lord (Luke 19:35-38).

There is some speculation among historians that the current East gate was built possibly as early as in the 6th   century AD by the Byzantines – or perhaps the 7th century AD by the Arabs – over the ruins of the Second temple gate, and this “new” gate has been sealed (some say by the Arabs) since the 16th century.

“Today a new world and a mysterious paradise have been revealed, in which and from which a New Adam came into being, re-making the Old Adam and renewing the universe…..today the living Tabernacle of God…the inspired human Ark of the true Bread of Life sent down from heaven for us….But, who is the new world, the mysterious paradise, the inspired Tabernacle and Ark of God, ….?  It is the Maiden who before and after childbearing is eternally virgin…”[14]

References:

[1] The Stavropegic Monastery of St. John the Baptist, Essex, UK, Mary the Mother of God: Sermons by Saint Gregory Palamas, ed. Christopher Veniamin (South Canaan, PA.: Mount Thabor Publishing, 2005, 2

[2] Mother Mary and Archimandrite Kallistos Ware, trans., The Festal Menaion , 519

[3] Mother Mary and Archimandrite Kallistos Ware, trans., The Festal Menaion , 164

[4] Mother Mary and Archimandrite Kallistos Ware, trans., The Festal Menaion , 164

[5] Mother Mary and Archimandrite Kallistos Ware, trans., The Festal Menaion , 164

[6] Flavius Josephus, The Wars of the Jews or History of the Destruction of Jerusalem (Teddington, Middlesex TW118HH,: Echo Library, 2009), 351

[7] St. John Maximovitch, The Orthodox Veneration of Mary the Birthgiver of God.,

[8] Mother Mary and Archimandrite Kallistos Ware, trans., The Festal Menaion, 165

[9] Mother Mary and Archimandrite Kallistos Ware, trans., The Festal Menaion, 166

[10] Mother Mary and Archimandrite Kallistos Ware, trans., The Festal Menaion, 184

[11] Holy Transfiguration Monastery, trans., The Great Horologion: Book of Hours (Brookline, MA.: Holy Transfiguration Monastery, 1997), 317

[12] Holy Transfiguration Monastery, trans., The Great Horologion: Book of Hours (Brookline, MA.: Holy Transfiguration Monastery, 1997), 317

[13] Mother Mary and Archimandrite Kallistos Ware, trans., The Festal Menaion, 179

[14] The Stavropegic Monastery of St. John the Baptist, Essex, UK, Mary the Mother of God: Sermons by Saint Gregory Palamas, ed. Christopher Veniamin (South Canaan, PA.: Mount Thabor Publishing, 2005, 2

Related blog posts on Jesus Christ’s Geneology:  Women in Jesus’ Geneology  also, Old Testament Priesthood as compared to New Testament Priesthood.

Scriptural references and hymnody for this part
New Testament Old Testament Hymnody
2 Corinthians 5:17

Hebrews 9:2-4

Revelation 11:19

Revelation 12:1

Matthew 24:27

Luke 19:35-38

 

Genesis 28:10-17

Genesis 19:1, 23:10

Isaiah 11:1

1 Kings 8:1-11

1 Kings 8:21

Exodus 16:33-34

Exodus 25:10-22

Exodus 25:31

Exodus 16:33, 34

Exodus 31:18

Ezekiel 43:27-44:4

Ezekiel 44:2-3

Ezekiel 43:1-12

 

Numbers 17:10

Numbers 17:1-13

1 Chronicles 21-22

2 Chronicles 36:22-23

1 Kings 6:1-38, 7, 8

1 Kings 6:19

1 Kings 8:9

1 Kings 8:6-9

Jeremiah 3:16

II Maccabees 2

Ezra 1:1-4

Ezra 4

Ezra 5

Daniel 9:1-2

 

Vespers and Matins for the Feast of the Entrance of the Mother of God, November 21.

 

Akathist Hymn to the Mother of God.

 

 

All of the educational information and posts on this website are copyrighted by the Author, Dr. Christine Cheryl Kerxhalli.  You are free to use anything in your ministry that is posted on this site as long as a link is provided to this website and the author is given appropriate credit

 

 

Veneration of the Virgin Mary, Part 1

This is Part 1 of a seven (7) part series on The Veneration of the Virgin Mary, also called the Mother of God, or Theotokos (Greek for God Bearer) in the Orthodox Christian Church.

Part 1     Part 2   Part 3    Part 4    Part 5    Part 6    Part 7

Related blog posts on Jesus Christ’s Geneology: Women in Jesus’ Geneology also, Old Testament Priesthood as compared to New Testament Priesthood.

___________

PART 1

  • Overview

Veneration of the Virgin Mary (Mother of God) in the Orthodox Christian faith is solidly based on a unique perspective only found fully articulated in the beautiful hymnody of the Orthodox liturgical tradition.   Most of the hymnody used in the church that venerates the Mother of God today was written by hymnographers as early as 400 AD and has continued to evolve in the liturgical practice of the church over the centuries.

Orthodox Church hymnody is replete with Old Testament passages prefiguring the Mother of God to teach the faithful that the entire history of Israel converges in the Theotokos and that the Orthodox Tradition of venerating her is a natural fulfillment of the Old Testament narratives.

Alexander Schmemann writes that it was precisely because of the biblical basis that the veneration of the Mother of God arose in the church.  Schmemann says that the veneration in the church is linked first of all with the Bible; and that this biblical basis is the reflection of the Old Testament in the New Testament, the discovery of even more profound meaning in the Old Testament in the light of the New.[1]

  • Terminology used for the Virgin Mary in the Church.

The Virgin Mary is referred to by several different terms in the Orthodox faith.  She is called in English, The Virgin Mary or the Mother of God.  This is a literal translation of the Greek, Miter Theou (Μήτηρ Θεού) that is used in Orthodox theological writing, hymnology and iconography.  In iconography, the term Miter Theou is used abbreviated as ΜΡ ΘΥ on icons of her, the initials being derived from the first and the last letter of each word in the Greek, Μήτηρ Θεού.    Miter Theou is also considered a non-literal translation of the Greek word used for her, Theotokos (Θεοτόκος).  A more English literal translation of Theotokos is “God Bearer” or “one who gives birth to God”.  Theotokos is a name given to the Virgin Mary at the Third Ecumenical Council, the Council of Ephesus in 431 AD[2] when the holy Fathers of the church decreed that Mary is Theotokos because her Son, Jesus Christ, is both fully human and fully divine.     In the Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom, after the consecration of the Holy Gifts, a hymn magnifying the Mother of God is sung by Orthodox congregations, “Truly it is proper to call you bless’d O Theotokos.  You who are most pure and ever blessed and the Mother of our God….” (Ἄξιόν ἐστιν ὡς ἀληθῶς μακαρίζειν σὲ τὴν Θεοτόκον, τὴν ἀειμακάριστον καὶ παναμώμητον καὶ μητέρα του Θεοῦ ἡμῶν…”)[3]

  • What is known about the Virgin Mary through canonical scripture.

Within canonical scripture, what is known about the Theotokos comes from the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John and the Acts of the Apostles.  Outside of scripture, the Sacred Tradition regarding the Mother of God comes from certain portions of various New Testament apocryphal writings that have been accepted by the Church fathers and this information has been taught to the faithful through the hymnody of the Orthodox Church since the 4th century AD.

Within the Gospels, the lineage of Jesus Christ is given in Matthew 1:1-17 and Luke 3:23-38, and it is through these scriptural passages of Jesus’ lineage that we become informed about the Virgin Mary’s lineage.   Matthew’s genealogy begins with Abraham and proceeds through King David /Bathesheba and their son Solomon.    Luke’s genealogy traces Jesus back to Adam and proceeds through King David/Bathesheba and their son Nathan.   Some biblical commentators say that one lineage was that of Mary and the other lineage was that of Joseph.  However, from the time of King David to when Jesus was born, Nathan’s lineage and Solomon’s lineage converge, so essentially Mary and Joseph shared the same paternal lineage.  This would have also been true since typically at that time, people married within their tribe, so Mary and Joseph would have shared the same paternal lineage based on the ancient Jewish tribal tradition.

Ancient Jewish genealogy normally listed only men, therefore, the paternal lineage would have been listed, not the maternal one.  Matthew, however, includes 5 women which would have been highly irregular by Jewish standards of that day.  They were Mary (the Mother of God), Tamar (Genesis 38:6-30), Rahab (Joshua 2:1-24), Ruth (Ruth 1:1-4:22) and Bathsheba (2 Samuel 11:1-27).   With the exception of the Virgin Mary, the other four women played a non-traditional role in the maternal genetic lineage of Jesus Christ through the Virgin Mary.  Biblical commentators have debated the inclusion of the four women.  Some scholars have indicated that it declares God’s graciousness to all sinners (male and female), some have said that it prefigures the calling of the Gentiles into the Church and others have said that their inclusion underscores the role of women in God’s plan of salvation and with the mentioning of the Theotokos, it also anticipates the special place of the Virgin Mary in that plan.

  • What is known about the Virgin Mary through sacred Tradition.

Scripture and sacred Tradition state that Mary’s father was Joachim and her mother was Anna.  Her father’s family, of the tribe of Judah, was from Nazareth of Galilee; her mother’s family was from Bethlehem of Judea.  From Sacred Tradition Her mother, Anna, was the daughter of Matthan the priest, of the tribe of Levi[4]  This Tradition underscores that although marriage within the tribe was preferred, marriages outside of the tribe were tolerated by the Israelites.  Some accounts say Joachim was a poor shepherd, others say Joachim was a rich shepherd, but all agree that he gave one-third of his wealth to orphans, widows, strangers and the poor; the second-third to the temple and its servants and those who worshipped God; and the last third he kept for himself.  Sacred Tradition further states that Joachim was twenty years old when he married Anna and scripture and sacred Tradition also writes that they had lived many years without children, some accounts say fifty years.  In the East at that time in history, to be a wife and not a mother was regarded as a matter of reproach and humiliation that could even lead to divorce.

The church tells us this story during Orthros and Vespers too, Oikos, Matins Canon, Sept. 8, St. Romanos chants,

“The prayer and groaning of Joachim and Anna at their barrenness and childlessness have proved acceptable, and have come unto the ears of the Lord; and they have put forth a fruit that brings life to the world.  The one offered his prayer in the mountain, the other bore her reproach in the garden.  But with joy the barren woman bears the Theotokos who sustains our life”[5].

Note the language used, ”the Theotokos who sustains our life”.  Sacred tradition tells us that both Joachim and Anna were visited by Archangel Gabriel and hears the proclamation that they will conceive.  These hymns are also heard in the church during vespers and matins on the birth of the Nativity of Mary and the Feast day of Joachim and Anna, Sept. 8/9.

This explanation has just demonstrated how the church utilizes not only the Gospels and Old Testament writing, but also how the holy Fathers glean relevant information from the sacred tradition in the church and incorporates all that is relevant into the hymnody of the Church.

  • Feast Days in the Church dedicated to the Virgin Mary.

There are 4 major feasts for the Theotokos in the Church:  her Conception (December 9th), her Nativity (September 8th), her Entrance into the Temple (November 21st), and her Dormition (August 15th).  These Feasts have as their origin portions taken from the apocryphal texts of:  the Protoevangelium of James, Pseudo-Matthew, The Gospel of the Nativity of Mary, The Falling Asleep of Mary and The Passing of Mary, respectively.   The holy Fathers of the Church and the hymnographers, with great spiritual discernment, borrowed from and expanded certain episodes within these Apocryphal writings because they believed that these accounts, like buried pearls, were valid and edifying, so they incorporated them into their writings and these accounts have now become part of the ancient Tradition of the Church.

  • Why the Orthodox Church venerates the Virgin Mary

In the Orthodox Church, worship belongs to God alone.  Veneration (deep respect) is given to the Theotokos and other individuals who have been important figures in the history of God’s plan for the salvation of His people.  The Orthodox Church greatly honors Mary, and calls her the first among the saints, because she was chosen to give birth to the Son of God, and more importantly, she of her own free will, chose to do the will of God and accept to bring the salvation of mankind into the world.  Mary’s faithful response in Luke 1:38, “Behold, I am the handmaid of the Lord; let it be to me according to your word”, was an act of the highest obedience to do the will of God.   The Incarnation was not only the work of God, but it involved the free response of mankind which was given in the person of Mary.  Reading Genesis and the New Testament Gospels, one learns a sharp contrast between Eve and the Virgin Mary:  Eve chooses not do God’s Will and Mary choose to do God’s Will.  In both cases, each of these important women exercised their free will to determine the fate of not only themselves, but of all mankind.  With Eve’s decision, mankind was regulated to weakness and spiritual death.  With the Virgin Mary’s decision, mankind was granted the opportunity to receive eternal life.

In Luke 1:31-33, Archangel Gabriel’s announcement emphasized two truths, that Mary would conceive in her womb the Lord Jesus who would take his human nature from Mary herself; and, that Jesus is the divine Son of the Highest – the eternal Son and Word of God, who is both fully human and fully divine. But her purpose in salvation history did not end with the birth giving of the Savior. She was not cast aside as someone who is no longer useful. Instead her whole being and life would continue to point us without distraction to her Son. At the wedding of Cana in Galilee we read her words: “Whatever He says to you, do it” (John 2:5). At her Son’s crucifixion, she stands fast at the foot of the Cross, this time pointing to her Son not with words but by her refusal to leave His side. Mary was faithful and always pointed others to God.  There is an Icon called “The Directress” that is said to have been painted by the Apostle Luke.  In this icon, the child of Jesus is sitting on her lap and Mary is directing the viewer’s attention to her Son with her right hand.  This icon image indicates that this is what each individual person’s spiritual goal should be:  to choose obedience to the Will of God.

The proper veneration of Mary, which the apostolic Church has always held, is not because Mary is the great exception but because she is the great example. This veneration is beautifully expressed in an Orthodox hymn that poetically recounts Gabriel’s first encounter with Mary, March 25, Dismissal Hymn:  “Today is the fountainhead of our salvation and the manifestation of the mystery which was from eternity.  The Son of God becomes the Virgin’s Son, and Gabriel announces the good tidings of grace; for this cause, let us cry to the Mother of God with him: Rejoice, thou who art full of grace, the Lord is with thee.”[6]

The Orthodox Church venerates the Mother of God because she is worthy of this praise for her perfect obedience to God’s will.   Through Divine Grace and the consent of the Theotokos, God’s son became incarnate and humanity was raised up to God.

  • Canonical Scripture and hymnody that venerates the Virgin Mary.

Liturgical hymns are replete with teachings for the Orthodox faithful.   The Akathist Hymn to the Mother of God,  is considered to be the single liturgical source where there are profound doctrinal insights primarily given through Old Testament passages that are used in this hymn in reference to the Mother of God and many of these Old Testament passages are heard at other Church services as well.

The majority of the Akathist hymn is made up of praises to the Mother of God all of which begin with Gabriel’s angelic salutation to the Virgin at the Annunciation, “Hail”, which is also translated as “Rejoice” in some translations of the Scripture (Luke 1:28).  The angelic salutations are then followed by passages many of which come from the Old Testament.   These passages teach the faithful that the veneration of the Virgin Mary in the Orthodox Christian faith is a natural fulfillment of the Old Testament narratives.

Because of the Virgin Mary’s character and especially because of her role in God’s plan of salvation, Christians appropriately honor Mary as the first among the saints.  The archangel Gabriel initiated this honor in his address to her, Luke 1:28: “Rejoice, highly favored one, the Lord is with you, blessed are you among women!”  Then the angel foretells the birth of Jesus through her, the virgin, and indicates how Jesus’ birth is the fulfillment of the Old Testament prophecies. (Luke 1:30-35).  An example of an Old Testament Prophesy regarding the virgin birth comes from Isaiah 7:14, “Therefore the Lord himself will give you a sign: The virgin will be with child and will give birth to a son, and will call him Immanuel”.

The scriptural passages in Luke 1:28 clearly indicate that God Himself had chosen to honor Mary.  Her favored status was confirmed when she went to visit her cousin Elizabeth, who was then six months pregnant with John the Baptist.  Elizabeth greeted Mary with these words: “Blessed are you among women, and blessed is the fruit of your womb!…But why is this granted to me, that the mother of my Lord should come to me?” (Luke 1:42, 43) and Mary predicted the honor that would be paid her throughout history when she said: “For behold, henceforth all generations will call me blessed” (Luke 1:48).

Just prior to Luke 1:48, in Luke 1:45, Elizabeth gives the reason that Mary would be venerated by the faithful in generations to come; and in so doing, Elizabeth actually becomes the first of the early Christians to verbally venerate Mary in scripture: “blessed is she who believed that there would be a fulfillment of what was spoken to her from the Lord”.(Luke 1:45)

In verse Luke 1:54, Mary says, “He has helped his servant Israel in remembrance of his mercy as he spoke to our fathers, to Abraham and to his posterity forever”.  Identity between Mary and the community of Israel is implicit as Mary’s comment aligns herself with being the vessel through which the community of Israel (which would ultimately find it’s fulfillment in the Christian Church) would receive God’s mercy as God had promised to Abraham and his descendants.  This is an important concept, the concept of community and the church.

One of the passages that are heard every Sunday in Church is Luke 1:46-55 – It is called the Magnificat because it is through this hymn that Mary herself exalts God.   The Holy Fathers say that Mary’s use of this hymn was inspired by the Song of Hannah (1 Samuel.2:1-10).  Her response with a modification of Hannah’s hymn indicates that Mary was very well educated in her faith and could respond with the words of the Old Testament Israelites and fully understood the prophecies and her role in fulfilling them.

Certain portions of the magnificat are also hymned at various other services of the church, for example, at the Artoclasia (Blessing of the 5 Loaves) service, the church hymns a modification of a passage from the Magnificat, “The rich have become poor and hungry, but those who seek the Lord shall not lack any good thing.”  Sunday morning Matins incorporates Luke 1:46-55 into it with a refrain after each verse that is, “More honorable than the cherubim and more glorious beyond compare to the seraphim, you who without defilement gave birth to God the Word, you are truly the Theotokos, we magnify you”.

So why does the church mention the cherubim and the seraphim and that Mary is more honorable and more glorious then them?  Well, the cherubim are mentioned 67 times in the Old Testament and once in the New Testament.  The first appearance of the cherubim is after man was driven out of the Garden of Eden in Genesis 3:24.   God placed the cherubim at the East of the Garden of Eden with a flaming sword which turned every way to guard the way to the Tree of Life.  The next place in scripture that we hear of the cherubim is in Exodus when the Lord spoke to Moses and gave him instructions to make the Ark of the Covenant (Ex 25:10).  The very first thing made for the tabernacle was the Ark of Testimony and in Ex 25:18 when Moses was given instruction to construct the mercy seat, he was told to make two cherubim of gold which would be the two ends of the mercy seat made as one piece, and the cherubim would stretch out their wings overshadowing the mercy seat with their wings and they should face each other looking at the center of the mercy seat.  The mercy seat was placed on top of the ark, and in the ark, Moses was to place the testimonies God would give him.

God told Moses that it was from the mercy seat between the two cherubim that He (God) would speak to Moses about everything God intended to give as commandment to the children of Israel.  The church sees the ark of testimony as a prefiguring of the Mother of God with Christ in her womb and we hear this today in the Akathist Hymn to the Mother of God which is heard in the Orthodox Church for five Fridays during Great Lent each year.  The Cherubim are honored to be the mercy seat on which God sits, but Mary, the Mother of God, is more honored than the Cherubim because she was chosen by God and personally accepted to physically bear the God of all in her womb.

The Akathist Hymn also says that the Mother of God is “more glorious beyond compare than the Seraphim”.  The Seraphim are described as a very glorious creature in Isaiah’s vision, Isaiah 6:1-12, in the Old Testament.  They constantly serve the Lord and sing to Him in a glorious way and scripture describes a unique physical beauty of six wings: two that cover their face, two that cover the feet, and two that are used to fly with.  And one seraphim cries to the other, “Holy, Holy, Holy is the Lord of hosts; the whole earth is full of His glory.”  The Virgin Mary is more glorious than the Seraphim because she willing chose to serve God and do His Will in a more beautiful and glorious way in order to bring man’s Salvation into the world.

The ancient Old Testament Prophets foretold of the Virgin Mary’s birth giving to the Savior.  The Archangel Gabriel was the first of the heavenly host to venerate the Virgin Mary at God’s command.  The Virgin Mary’s cousin Elizabeth was the first of the children of God in the New Testament to verbally venerate her.   John the Baptist, who was yet unborn, leapt in his mother’s womb upon visitation of Mary which indicates that he was the first of those that would be born in the future generations who would venerate her.  Mary, herself, predicted that throughout history all generations would call her blessed (Luke 1:48).  The Virgin Mary is venerated in the Orthodox Church not because she is the greatest exception, but because she is the greatest example.

References:

[1] Alexander Schmemann, The Historical Road of Eastern Orthodoxy (Yonkers, NY: St Vladimir’s Seminary Press, 1963), 192

[2] P. Schaff, Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers (Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson Publishers Inc. 1994), 191-224

[3] Rev. Alexander G. Leondis, Rev. Socrates C. Tsamutalis, and Rev. James C. Moulketis, trans., The Divine Liturgy of Saint John Chrysostom and Hymnal (Midland Park, New Jersey: NIKA Publishing, 1989), 35-37

[4] Holy Transfiguration Monastery, trans., The Great Horologion: Book of Hours (Brookline, MA.: Holy Transfiguration Monastery, 1997), 246

[5] Mother Mary and Archimandrite Kallistos Ware, trans., The Festal Menaion (South Canaan, Pennsylvania: St Tikhons Seminary Pr, 1990), 119

[6] Holy Transfiguration Monastery, trans., The Great Horologion: Book of Hours (Brookline, MA.: Holy Transfiguration Monastery, 1997), 450

Sunday School Advent/Christmas program for Orthodox Christian Youth.

This is a Sunday School Advent/Christmas program that effectively includes all children in the Catechism program of the church, First Grade through Teens.
The purpose of the program is to create anticipation and preparation in awaiting the birth of our Savior during the 40-day Christmas Lenten period. “The Services of Christmas in the Orthodox Church” by Protopresbyter Alexander Schmemann in the book The Services of Christmas: The Nativity of our Lord Jesus Christ, by David Anderson and John Erickson; together with the book, Making God Real in the Orthodox Christian Home, by Rev. Fr. Anthony Coniaris, inspired the design of this Sunday School program.
Using Fr. Coniaris’ idea of an Advent Wreath in his book, “Making God Real in the Orthodox Christian Home” and applying appropriate adaptations to his suggestions to turn it into a program for all children to present to the adults of the parish during Advent, the program that was developed was entitled “PREPARING FOR HIS COMING”

Click the following link to view the program detail:  Christmas Advent Program for Orthodox Youth.  

Orthodox Christian Youth Craft for Christmas Lent – Christmas (Advent) Wreath

For Orthodox Christians, the fast period for the Nativity of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ begins on November 15 and extends through December 25. Orthodox Christians often refer to this time as the Christmas Fast or Christmas Lent. This is a spiritual period of moderate fasting, prayer, scripture reading and reflection on the coming of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. In the USA, other Christian traditions often use what is called an Advent Wreath to enrich the spirituality of the Christmas Lenten season as they await the celebration of the birth of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. According to those Christian traditions, a candle is lit every Sunday during the Christmas Advent (Lent) season marking the passing of time until the Nativity of the Lord. This craft project borrows that Advent Wreath Christian tradition and adapts it for use in the Orthodox Christian home during the forty-day (40 day) Christmas Lenten fast period while providing appropriate scriptural readings for each lighting.

Click this link for detailed information: A SAFETY Orthodox Christian Advent Wreath.

Orthodox Christian Safety Advent Wreath Orthodox Christian Safety Advent Wreath